A motor vehicle that’s equipped and set in movement a hybrid setup is termed a hybrid automobile. To create this kind of a car carried the movement power of two or much more engines with various sources of energy reconstructed in the mechanical motion of the wheels and also other elements. Hybrid automobiles are more generally used electric motors and internal combustion motor combined. These engines are used in spite of the variety of different power sources, such as compressed air, compressed liquefied gas, solar, wind and others. These cars have an unbeatable advantages: reduced emissions of carbon dioxide, tar and other substances into your atmosphere and becomes much less fuel consumption. This can be thanks to the use of high capacity battery, work jointly ICE and electric engine and the application of braking energy in the movement of the auto by converting the kinetic power into electrical power. The hybrid automobile is definitely an innovation in the automotive business and to conserve exhaustible resources and environmental conservation have been developed following new system: stop – start, heated coolant recycled gases, variable valve timing, a return to the work of processed gas. Hybrid vehicles also apply the following technical options: tires with low resistance, improved aerodynamics, electric generate auxiliary equipment, for example local climate regulate, water pump, energy steering and other units.
Efficiency of hybrids observed inside city, as there are much more stops, more of your engine at idle. The hybrid vehicle is much less effective on the highway in which the velocity is regular and higher. You can find numerous schemes of hybrid vehicles: serial, parallel, serial – parallel. It all depends upon how the interaction of electric and internal combustion engines.
Consistent scheme assumes that the automobile is going from an electric motor. ICE only fuels the battery packs and feeds an electric motor related to the generator. You may connect the power plant immediately after a stop inside socket. Such hybrids are called “plug-in hybrids”. In these types of cars are used lithium-ion batteries are higher capacity, which makes it possible for you to work with this function. Resulting from this lowered usage of the engine combustion and reduced emissions of CO2, a variety of resins and also other ingredients. Cars “Opel Ampera” and “Chevrolet Volt” is really a plug-in hybrids. The car moves approximately sixty miles on battery energy, and approximately five hundred miles – on a generator that runs on an internal combustion engine.
Parallel scheme consists of the establishment of ICE and electric motor in such a placement that they could function jointly or separately. Automatically controlled clutch can join the electric engine, gearbox and engine combustion. These kinds of hybrids are called Mild Hybrids. About twenty-kilowatt electric motor (very low energy) is used in mild hybrids, and this enables us to obtain improved power when accelerating the automobile. Identical engine acts like a generator and starter, ensconced between the gearbox and motor combustion. We list some of the modes of Integrated Engine Assist: joint function of internal combustion engine and electric motor, the ability to charge the battery from braking, the opportunity to operate on the motor, the ability to charge the battery from the generator mode and work for the engine.
Finally, we consider the joint parallel-serial scheme in which the internal combustion motor and electric engine are linked by means of a planetary gearbox. Power from every single motor could be transmitted to the driven wheels from zero to 1 hundred percent. In such a scheme added a generator to provide electric energy. These cars are known as Full Hybrids. This group consists of these kinds of automobiles as the Lexus RX 450h, Toyota Prius, Ford Escape Hybrid. But still, like a main producer of full hybrid is Toyota and its system of HSD or Hybrid Synergy Drive. Hybrid Synergy Drive consists of an electric engine connected with a planetary gear with all the ring gear, the internal combustion motor related to a planetary gear and generator linked with a planetary gear sun gear. Fewer dangerous emissions and fuel economy is supplied by ICE, here he operates on the principle of the Atkinson cycle. Within this cycle the main power is realized at minimal revs.
HSD system can function in numerous modes:
1) Mode Forcing. The electric engine connected to the internal combustion motor, powered from the battery and provides energy pulses.
2) Mode Electric Car. The battery provides energy electric engine that drives a car, plus the internal combustion engine is turned off.
3) Saving mode. Rechargeable battery provides electricity to the generator and the generator, in turn, converts electricity into mechanical motion and slows the rotation of the engine. This provides efficiency without having minimizing motor torque.
4) Driving at a constant rate. Power of internal combustion engine is distributed to the wheels and also the generator, which feeds the electric motor. Energy motor and electric engine are summarized, too because the battery is charging, if required.
5) Braking mode. The electric motor becomes a generator, and this electricity is used to rotate the sun gear in the reverse route, while the auto slows down.
6) Charge the battery. In this mode the battery is recharged through the generator and engine.
As in the past 6 years, the title of Greatest hybrid vehicle 2010 deservedly got a Toyota Prius. This spacious, dependable, protected auto is striking in its economy – fuel consumption in combined cycle, 4.6 l/one hundred km. Use of this vehicle is pleasant for the owner and is safe for the surroundings.